Endothelial progenitor cells as the target for cardiovascular disease prediction, personalized prevention, and treatments: progressing beyond the state-of-the-art
Abstract Stimulated by the leading mortalities of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), various types of cardiovascular biomaterials have been widely investigated in the past few decades. Although great therapeutic effects can be achieved by bare metal stents (BMS) and drug-eluting stents (DES) within months or years, the long-term complications such as late thrombosis and restenosis have limited their further applications. It is well accepted that rapid endothelialization is a promising approach to eliminate these complications. Convincing evidence has shown that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) could be mobilized into the damaged vascular sites systemically and achieve endothelial repair in situ, which significantly contributes to the re-endothelialization process. Therefore, how to effectively capture EPCs via specific molecules immobilized on biomaterials is an important point to achieve rapid endothelialization. Further, in the context of predictive, preventive, personalized medicine (PPPM), the abnormal number alteration of EPCs in circulating blood and certain inflammation responses can also serve as important indicators for predicting and preventing early cardiovascular disease. In this contribution, we mainly focused on the following sections: the definition and classification of EPCs, the mechanisms of EPCs in treating CVDs, the potential diagnostic role of EPCs in predicting CVDs, as well as the main strategies for cardiovascular biomaterials to capture EPCs. Keywords Cardiovascular biomaterials . Rapid endothelialization . Endothelial progenitor cells . Endothelial progenitor cell capturing stent . Predictive diagnostics . Targeted prevention . EPC-specific molecules . Predictive preventive personalized medicine (PPPM/3PM
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